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The wait has been long, difficult gestation. But the draft law for energy transition green growth came to an end. It was finally adopted by the deputies, Wednesday, July 22 evening, the final reading after a new goal to increase the carbon price has been set. With this text, presented by François Hollande as one of the “major projects of the five-year” , France can be displayed as “exemplary” by hosting the World Conference on the climate of Paris (COP21) in December, welcomed the Minister for Ecology, Segolene Royal. This is for her an undeniable political success even if his hope for consensus of the two parliamentary chambers on this emblematic case was showered.
Initially announced for summer 2013 presented Council of Ministers a year ago, debated in the first reading in the Assembly here ten months this law, although qu’examinée accelerated procedure has been a laborious journey, senators employing, both at first and second reading, to unravel the work of MPs. Essentially, they eventually returned to the original document. This did not prevent Ms. Royal salute, after 150 hours of sometimes heated debate, a “co-construction” by the two assemblies.
Nuclear , buildings, transport
ambitious in their aims, Articles 66 emerging for the middle of the century a more sober energy system more sustainable and less nuclearised: 40% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 (compared to 1990) and division by four in 2050; halving of final energy consumption in 2050, with a first level of 20% in 2030; decline in the share of fossil 30% by the same date; promoting renewable to 32% of energy consumption and 40% of electricity production on the same date.
Added to reducing the share of nuclear power in the electricity mix in 50% “2025″ against 75% today. A schedule consistent with the commitment of the head of state, against which the right has fought fiercely, senators wishing the decreased weight of the atom is referred “Forward” , with no deadline.
Similarly, the total capacity of power plants is capped at its current level of 63.2 gigawatts (GW), to force EDF to close during the setting the EPR Flamanville service (Manche), the equivalent power reactors. Both units at Fessenheim (Haut-Rhin) are in sight, although they are not cited. The Senate, he wanted to increase the ceiling to 64.85 GW to have your cake and eat it, that is to say the 58 current reactors and the new EPR.
Read also: Energy Transition: how the Senate changed the law
“green” France, two major levers will be used. First, energy renovation of buildings, which account for nearly half the country’s energy consumption. It will be mandatory for all private residential buildings, while new buildings of the state and local authorities should be “positive energy and high environmental performance” .
Then transport “clean” , the sector is responsible for over a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions. When renewing their vehicle fleets, the state and public institutions will opt “within the minimum proportion of 50%” for Models “low emission” . The same goes for taxis and car rental companies, up to 10% of their fleet. In addition, companies with at least one hundred employees must draw up a “mobility plan” promoting the use of public transportation and carpooling.
Objective “100,000 jobs” in three years
All of these projects, like the development of the renewable energy sectors (wind, solar, marine energy and biomass), waste recycling (volumes landfilled must be halved by 2025), or the ban on disposable plastic bags from 2016, should allow, says Ms. Royal, “the creation of 100 000 jobs in green growth” in three years. To accompany them, she promises, also over three years, € 10 billion of state aid, especially in the form of tax credits, loans at zero interest or bonuses to encourage thermal renovation of housing or replacing older diesel vehicles with electric cars
Read also:. How the energy transition will be funded
Does This law provided for? France’s “nation environmental excellence” touted by Mrs Royal? Everything will depend on implementation decrees – the first to be published “as from September 2015″ , the Minister promises – but above two features that really define the roadmap of the energy transition, ie its practical implementation
First, the national low carbon strategy, which must determine, by decree and by five-year periods, the “carbon budgets” -. c that is to say the emission ceilings should not be exceeded. – in different sectors (transport, buildings, industry, agriculture)
A dramatic turn of events occurred Wednesday morning a special committee of the National Assembly despite the negative opinion of the government, MPs mainly included a Senate amendment, supported by many socialist MPs and environmentalists. It provides for an increase in the carbon tax (now 14.5 per tonne), with a target of 56 euros per tonne in 2020 and EUR 100 per tonne in 2030. This, to give “a signal -Price effective “ to industrial and encourage them to reduce their emissions. In final reading, the minister changed his tune and gave a favorable opinion on the amendment, which was therefore adopted
Read also:. France unveils strategy Low Carbon
Next, the multiannual programming energy (EPP), who also stopped by order, determine the stepwise path to be followed for the different energy sectors. It was she who really will achieve or not the targets for renewable and nuclear. The first PEP should cover the period 2016-2018, which would therefore require it to be established before the end of this year. Now a government amendment, passed in the Senate and resumed in special commission rejects indefinitely this programming, the time is considered too tight. “consultations” will only “incurred before December 31, 2015″ . Clearly, the translation of the law in fact wait.
Finally, “Bill provides a useful cap interesting and sets goals, but the key remains to be done” , react the Climate Action Network and the Network for the energy transition. In their eyes, “shift the publication of the first EPP is even defer the moment of choice and it is a very bad signal to months of COP21″ .