the States of The world are gathered together from Monday, November 7 in Marrakech to agree on the application of the Paris agreement. The outcome of the COP21 saw for the first time the international community engage against the climate disruption and the procedures for entry into force should now be discussed at the COP22. But, for these first days, around 15,000 participants at the annual conference of the united nations – negotiators, politicians, scientists, NGOS, enterprises, etc. – should be largely in the spirit of the Atlantic, where plays the us presidential election.
While the republican Donald Trump has already assured that it would attack the agreement if he was elected, the head of the UN climate said, Sunday, ” willing to work with/the future(e) president(e) “. “We hope that we can have a relationship very constructive and positive “, told the press Patricia Espinosa. The United States, 2nd emitter of global greenhouse gas emissions, sources of global warming, ” are one of our most important partners, their participation in this agreement is crucial. “As it stated :” Now, the Paris agreement came into force and we are all constrained by this commitment. “
” A COP for application and action “
The Paris agreement adopted at the end of 2015 has been signed by 192 States and ratified by 100 of them, representing nearly 70 % of global emissions. It is now ” the roadmap to the fight against climate change “, stresses Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, peruvian minister who presided over the COP20, now head of the WWF. But at the COP22 in Marrakesh, negotiators will have to start to agree on a whole list of procedures, which will be the final of Paris a real success or not.
Their first task will be, according to the trader French Laurence Tubiana,” complete rules ” of this compact complex, which includes a collective goal (not to exceed + 2 °C of warming), promises national action (insufficient at this stage) and general principles for the review on the rise. Concretely, this will involve solving a series of challenging questions : how to track the GHG emissions of each country ? How to ensure the financing of climate policies of the countries of the South were promised by the North ? What will be the criteria to “compensate” poor countries affected by climate impacts, droughts, floods and other storms ? “The COP22 is really a COP for application and action,” explained the american negotiator Jonathan Pershing to the press. The current consensus is to reach an agreement on these subjects by 2018.
Fight against ” a human tragedy preventable, “
A comprehensive review of national pledges for emissions reductions – issues for the most part from the combustion of petroleum, coal and gas – is also expected in 2018, on the basis of volunteering. The realization of the existing plans, would avoid the increase in catastrophic 4 °to 5 ° C expected in the absence of climate policies, but if nothing more was done, the planet would remain on a trajectory that is extremely dangerous to + 3 °C. hence the need to strengthen these commitments. “We need to close this gap,” insisted Laurence Tubiana. “The great battle of the coming two years is about the way in which we can bring countries to increase their ambition “.
The Paris agreement calls for limiting the warming below + 2 °C compared to before the industrial revolution, or even 1.5 °C, a huge challenge. On the field, many signals show that change is underway and that the transition to clean energy is underway. Thus, 2015 has been a record year for investment in renewable energy, particularly in emerging countries. The companies present like never before at the COP – begin themselves to take their part, pushed by the need to anticipate the change towards a low-carbon economy.
But, at the same time, scientists continue to sound the alarm. After two record years, the year 2016 is expected to again be the hottest ever recorded on Earth, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to rise. “If we do not begin to take additional action now [to reduce emissions], we will eventually cry in front of a human tragedy preventable,” said Thursday, Erik Solheim, the director of the united Nations program for the environment. Sixty heads of State and government will come to Marrakech for the second week of the COP, in order to strengthen the political momentum.