Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Ask your questions on the alternating circulation, and the peak of pollution in Paris and Lyon – The World

The vehicles registered abroad are subject to a waiver.

the Lyon, the alternating circulation is not raised from four consecutive days passed above the threshold of 80 mg / m3 for fine particles ; the prefect had refused until then to put in place. However, just like Paris, the city suffered heavy pollution for a few days. The rates have reached 90 micrograms of fine particles per cubic meter of air this afternoon, after 80 µg observed yesterday and 76 µg Monday – the previous days being at a much lower level.

in Paris, the prefect has anticipated a new ministerial decree which brings us back to two consecutive days of pollution on the triggering of emergency measures such as the alternating circulation.

Any person not complying with this measure will be subject to a ticket, 2nd class, in the amount of € 22 and will be subject to a measure of detention of his vehicle and a possible impound.

The alternating circulation can help to counter a peak of pollution, but it is not sufficient as it does not target the vehicles with the most pollutants. Beyond point measurements, it is necessary to fight against the chronic pollution and not just at the peaks. It is foremost to act on the automobile traffic which is the main source of pollutant emissions in urban areas : more and more communities are trying to reduce the traffic speed (e.g. 30 km/h), even restricting the traffic in the city centre or to prohibit vehicles the most polluting.

The observatory of air quality in the Ile-de-France region, Airparif, is in the process of measurement of the impact of the closure of lanes on shore, right shore, but its results are not yet available.

According to a study by the national Agency of health security, we found in the subway the same pollutants as in the air outside, with the exception of ozone. Of course there are less outside oxide of nitrogen, this gas, resulting in particular from road traffic. But the concentrations of fine particles PM10 (particles of diameter less than 10 microns) are significantly more important. During the day, the presence of these particles can reach on the subway platform up to 200 micrograms per cubic metre and even up to more than 500 on the platform of the RER. Beyond, therefore, the standard of the world health Organization fixed – for the outside air to 50 micrograms per cubic meter over 24 hours. The emission of these particles is mainly due to the braking of the trains.

The alternating circulation has obvious limits, since it does not target the vehicles with the most pollutants. Moreover, it is true that there is a tolerance for cars that display the thumbnails Crit’air to circulate. The prefect of Paris, had said Monday that “these vehicles will be viewed with indulgence when police checks”. The public authorities seek to raise the awareness of Parisians and ile-de-france to this vignette that becomes mandatory for getting around in Paris as of January 16, 2017.

The pollution of the air causes every year 2 500 premature deaths in the capital and 6 500 in the city. At the French scale, air pollutants, lead 48, 000 deaths in premature infants per year, according to public Health France. The fine particulate matter PM10 (with a diameter less than 10 microns) can be inhaled into the respiratory tract, while the finer, PM2,5 are even more dangerous because they penetrate into the lungs and even the blood system.

The air pollution in urban areas increases the risk of acute respiratory diseases (pneumonia, for example), and chronic (cancer of the lung, for example) as well as cardio-vascular disease.

The prefecture of police has just announced that the alternating circulation will be renewed tomorrow in Paris. It will thus affect the vehicles peers, because we will one day be together.

A-t-on a first balance sheet of the alternating circulation in Paris (with so many exemptions, and disobedience) ? How much of the traffic in the least? How many particles less ? -Dr. Jack

We still don’t have any balance sheet for the alternating circulation that has been put in place in Paris since yesterday (and which will be repeated tomorrow, as just announced, the prefecture of police of Paris).

On the other hand, the balance sheet has been made for when the alternating circulation had been established on march 17, 2014, on the eve of the municipal elections. It had helped to reduce the road traffic of 18 % in Paris and 13 % in the inner ring, according to the assessment made by Airparif. Result : the concentration of particulate matter PM10 (with a diameter less than 10 microns) were decreased by an average of 6 % and that of nitrogen dioxide by 10 %. At peak hours, these declines were more significant, up to 20 %.

In reality, what is important, it is the air that we breathe. These are, therefore, less emissions and concentrations of pollutants that it is necessary to take into account. Yet nearly half of the particulate matter that you breathe in from traffic in the paris area.

in Paris and its inner suburbs in particular, road traffic is responsible for 28 % of emissions of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 microns) and more than 50 % of discharges of nitrogen oxides, according to Airparif, the regional observatory of the air quality in the Ile-de-France. The heating (residential and business) is responsible for 26 % of emissions of PM10 and 20 % of nitrogen oxides. The yards and quarries also represent 18 % of the discharges of PM10.

The episode of pollution present can be explained by the weather conditions : an anticyclone favors the accumulation of pollutants near the ground. The absence of wind leads to an accumulation on the ground, in the evening and early in the morning, fine particulate matter emitted by road traffic and heating. And as frequently in the winter, there is a phenomenon of inversion of temperature : in the morning and in the evening, the air near the ground is cooler than that of the atmosphere ; the pollutants cannot disperse, finding himself trapped under a “lid”.

In the meantime, here are some of our content of the day on the topic :

Hello. Chat with Laetitia Van Eeckhout, a journalist with the service Planet the World, on the air pollution in Paris and Lyon will start at 15 hours. You can already ask your questions.


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