Two years after the attacks against Charlie Hebdo and the Hyper Hide, fifteen months after the massacre at the Bataclan and the parisian terraces, eight months after Nice and Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray, the numbers of racist acts, published this Wednesday by the ministry of the Interior, were very expected. After having crossed for the first time the threshold of the 2000 acts in 2015, in the wake of the attacks, the jihadists, the balance sheet total is state-of-1125 acts in 2016, decline of 44.7%.
READ more >> acts of anti-semitism, anti-muslim and racist have fallen in 2016
The anti-semitic acts and the acts of anti-muslim experiencing a sharp decline almost identical, 58,5% for the first (335 in 2016 against 808 in the previous year) and to 57.6% for the latter (182 vs. 429). Racist acts in the strict sense (excluding acts of anti-semitism and anti-muslim), of which approximately 40% are anti-mughrabi, have experienced a decrease in lower, for 23.7% (608 against 797).
A “work against “islamophobia” charges
“If it observes a systematic increase of acts of anti-muslim after the attacks of 2015 and 2016, the increases are more moderate, welcomes Gilles Clavreul, inter-ministerial delegate to fight against racism and anti-semitism (Dilcra).
For the Interior, no doubt. This improvement is the “fruit of the actions undertaken by the government,” after the launch in April 2015 an action plan of 100 million euros. During a press conference, Bruno Le Roux has drawn from these figures “encouraging” a “forms of satisfaction”, while ensuring to keep a “triumphalism”.
According to Abdallah Zekri, President of the National Observatory of Islamophobia of the French Council of muslim cult (CFCM), this improvement would in fact be in part related to “the establishment of a prefect responsible for the security of places of worship. In The World, Marwan Muhammad, director of the Collective against islamophobia in France (CCIF), also explains this decrease by a great “empathy” and “solidarity” shown to the muslims and the effect of the “work against “islamophobia”.
“we must remain cautious”
acts that are listed (violence, fire, damage…) and threats (words, inscriptions, letters, abusive, etc) correspond to the events which gave rise to a complaint or a handrail.
“These data are therefore only the tip of the iceberg, relativizes Nonna Mayer, a researcher specialist of racism and anti-semitism at the CNRS and at the Centre for european studies of Sciences Po. They do not take into account only those complaints that concern the most serious acts, but not discrimination, for which the complaints will not necessarily be taken into consideration, such as, for example, a veiled woman forbidden entry in a public place.”
Even reserve for Abdallah Zekri: “we have to be careful, a lot of muslims do not dare to lodge a complaint. The CFCM, we receive dozens of letters, threats and insults. I do not complain, because these cases are often closed without further action by the court.” Marwan Muhammad denounces him, “islamophobia safe, affecting the muslim-e-s through an anti-terrorist policy undermined the rule of law”.
An increase of 17.4% damage to christian sites
A point blackens the table. Abuses of christian sites, places of worship and cemeteries, have increased of 245% between 2008 and 2016. With 949 made in 2016, up a 17.4% compared to 2015, the measures of christian places represent 90% of the total damage of places of worship of all denominations. A significant portion of these attacks are acts of vandalism (399), and theft of objects of worship (191).
Few commentators are likely to explain the concrete reasons of this increase. “In these acts of vandalism against christian sites or other, there is often an effect of imitation, young people see the media coverage in the newspapers and do the same”, is known, and Nonna Mayer.
“For the moment it is difficult to explain, abounds the Conference of bishops of France. Acts of vandalism are not new, the terrorist though.” Gilles Clavreul remains cautious: “I think there is just a trend in the long term, it will be necessary to refine these typologies to have a more fine-grained analysis”. But according to him, “it is especially necessary to differentiate between acts motivated by an ideology and those who are traditionally of ordinary crime, such as acts of heinous, ritual, satanic or damage, pure and simple, including the fact that the churches are open places.”
as much as in France, the christian buildings are by far the most numerous, with more than 45,000 churches and temples, to approximately 2,500 mosques and 500 synagogues. 2400 christian places of worship are protected by proactive patrolling, not to mention the muslim buildings (1090) or jews (817 synagogues, schools and community centres).