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Patrick Ollier was elected, Friday, January 22, the first president of the board of the Grand Paris (MGP). The deputy of Hauts-de-Seine and mayor of Rueil-Malmaison The Republicans will lead this new assembly of 209 elected officials whose names can be confusing: MGP is indeed one of the emanations of major development projects the Ile-de-France region gathered under the term “Grand Paris”. Explanations in four steps.
Why a Grand Paris?
The expression is chosen from the beginning of his term as President of the Republic Nicolas Sarkozy. Behind it emerges the will to orchestrate the economic development of the “capital region”. “This is a problem faced by all countries to showcase how its capital internationally? “ says Daniel Béhar, geographer and lecturer at the Paris Institute of Urban Planning. Thus is born the Greater Paris project, led by the government, which devotes from 2008 a Secretariat of State Christian Blanc told.
Several aspects of development of the Ile-de-France
From there, various projects were launched:
The project Grand Paris Express, improvement and extension of the transport network, with the creation of 200 km of automatic metro lines and 68 new stations. It is managed by the Société du Grand Paris, a public institution set up by the state.
The creation of technological innovation on the pole Saclay, that will consolidate including 18 universities.
The creation of public structures that will plan and organize the development of the Paris region as property Etablissement public d’Ile-de-France and Greater Paris development. Both are controlled by the State, to support the development of the region.
A large prospective project is also launched with urban planners and geographers to imagine what will be the future region is the International Workshop of Greater Paris
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And the Grand Paris in?
Meanwhile, several territorial reorganization of political projects are carried out on all the territory. Successive governments want including strengthening inter-municipal – almost nonexistent in Ile-de-France – and create institutional metropolises. After years of debate, the our law, adopted in July, eventually enact, from 1 st January 2016
- Ile-de France divided into 32 intermunicipal territories who are responsible, for example, the definition of a local intercommunal planning (plui).
- A “super-inter” which brings together the twelve biggest these new territories (at least 300 000 inhabitants each): it is the famous Grand Paris (MGP), which elected its president Friday
View. also: Understanding the Grand Paris
The MGP has in turn bring a major development project: it is she who will be responsible for the issue of housing. It will also handle issues of economic development, environmental protection, and will, eventually, directions to the twelve territories that comprise it in terms of spatial planning. It encompasses 131 communes:
- The municipalities of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne
- Argenteuil (Val-d’Oise)
- Six towns in the Essonne
In total, this represents more than 7 million inhabitants, in a territory that produces more than 25% of national GDP. His 209 are elected from municipal councils; they were initially chosen in local assemblies, and will be elected by universal suffrage from the municipal elections of 2020. The Parisian elected weigh a particular weight in this assembly, with no less than 62 councilors.
Read: Le Grand Paris, a confederation of municipal executives
The MGP, a disappointing project
Rest? many criticize the fact that the newborn Métropole has few powers and limited resources. Indeed, it can not begin to rule in land use planning and housing until 1 st in January 2017 and will have full all its skills in 2020 Furthermore, “that is not a control unit” says Daniel Béhar. Indeed, the PGM must constantly decide in cooperation with other authorities. For example, in transport, it is the region which remains competent, as well as for issuing building permits, restricted to municipalities.
In terms of finances, the MGP has a budget of 65 million euros – no comparison with the EUR 8 billion that make up the budget of Paris – which may seem limited in terms of its powers, and it does not provide for fiscal redistribution mechanism between territories rich and poor, while the initial project intended to make a territorial rebalancing tool.
Daniel Béhar, the initial creation of a metropolitan center project boosting the French economy is, he promises. “Private actors have appropriated the Grand Paris , he said. They saw a real market and a showcase effect vis-à-vis abroad. “
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